Glossary of Business Terms – “I”

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q
R S T U V W X Y Z

 

IMF – International Monetary Fund, the organization that industrialized nations have established to reduce trade barriers and stabilize currencies, especially those of less industrialized nations.

Impaired Capital – A company’s capital that is worth less than the par value of its stock.

Import = A product or service brought into another country from its country of origin either for sale or for use in manufacturing.

Impression – A measure of the number of times an online advertisement is viewed.

Incentive Program – An award or reward scheme designed to improve sales force or retail performance.

Income Redistribution – A government policy that seeks to restrain increases in wages or prices by regulating the permitted level of increase.

Income Statement – A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Income Tax – A tax levied directly on the income of a person or a company and paid to the local, state, or federal government.

Income Tax Return – A form used for reporting income and computing the tax due on it.

Income Statement – A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Indirect Channel =  The selling and distribution of products to customers through intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, agents, dealers, or retailers.

Indirect Cost – A fixed or overhead cost that cannot be attributed directly to the production of a particular item and is incurred even when there is no output.

Inflation – A sustained increase in a country’s general level of prices that devalues its currency, often caused by excess demand in the economy.

Infomercial – A television or cinema commercial that includes helpful information about a product as well as advertising content.

Initial Public Offering – The first instance of making particular shares available for sale to the public.

Insolvency – The inability to pay debts when they become due. Insolvency will apply even if total assets exceed total liabilities, if those assets cannot be readily converted into cash to meet debts as they mature. Even then, insolvency may not necessarily mean business failure. Bankruptcy may be avoided through debt rescheduling or turnaround management.

Income Statement – A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Insurance – An arrangement in which individuals or companies pay another company to guarantee them compensation if they suffer loss resulting from risks such as fire, theft, or accidental damage.

Intellectual Property – The ownership of rights to ideas, designs, and inventions, including copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Intellectual property is protected by law in most countries, and the World Intellectual Property Organization is responsible for harmonizing the law across different countries and promoting protection of intellectual property rights.

Interest – The rate that a lender charges for the use of money that is a loan.

Interest Rate – The amount of interest charged for borrowing a particular sum of money over a specified period of time.

Income Statement – A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Internet – The vast collection in inter-connected networks that provide electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web.

Inventory – A list of assets being held for sale, The stock of finished goods, raw materials, and work in progress held by a company.

Invest – To lay out money for any purpose from which a profit is expected.

Investment – The spending money on stocks, shares, and other securities, or on assets such as plant and machinery.

Invisible Exports – The profits, dividends, interest, and royalties received from selling a country’s services abroad.

Invoice – A document that a supplier sends to a customer detailing the cost of products or services supplied and requesting payment.